6001. Consider this anonymous saying:

Sky red at night, sailors' delight; Sky red at morning, sailors take warning.

Which of the four approaches to text would you apply to this text? Why?

6002. Although a phone book contains only fact, knowledge of certain codes is necessary if a reader is to understand it. Discuss as many of these codes as you can identify.

6003. In its broadest sense the term "text" might refer to any data that is taken in by the eye. How might the following be considered as text? Why might they not be considered text?

  1. The dotted and solid lines painted down the middle of a road
  2. Flocks of geese flying south
  3. A photograph of your best friend
  4. A look of satisfaction on your parent's face when you bring home a good report card
  5. The flow of traffic on a highway
  6. A video tape of one episode of a television series

6004. Put in semiotic terms, the "reader-oriented" approach to text can be stated like this: while the denotation of a given text may be the same for writer and reader, the connotation will almost certainly be different. Furthermore, every reader will develop a unique connotation. Therefore, there is no way the author's intent to transmit a particular meaning can be carried out. Explain this statement in your own words.

6005. Research the ways that broadcast media are different in third-world countries than it is in the United States.

6006. The following text is taken from the opening lines of the Tao Teh Ching, a Chinese sacred text central to Taoism.